Dynamics of Atmospheric Flight Bernard Etkin a. Seller: TheBooksSaga. Ships with Tracking Number! Buy with confidence, excellent customer service! May not contain Access Codes or Supplements.
Dynamics Of Atmospheric Flight
May be ex-library. Used - Good. Ships from the UK. Former Library book. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Your purchase also supports literacy charities. Binding good. Pages white and clean. Subsonic flows are often idealized as incompressible, i. Transonic and supersonic flows are compressible, and calculations that neglect the changes of density in these flow fields will yield inaccurate results. Viscosity is associated with the frictional forces in a flow. In some flow fields, viscous effects are very small, and approximate solutions may safely neglect viscous effects.
These approximations are called inviscid flows. Flows for which viscosity is not neglected are called viscous flows. Finally, aerodynamic problems may also be classified by the flow environment. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes e.
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Unlike liquids and solids, gases are composed of discrete molecules which occupy only a small fraction of the volume filled by the gas. On a molecular level, flow fields are made up of the collisions of many individual of gas molecules between themselves and with solid surfaces. However, in most aerodynamics applications, the discrete molecular nature of gases is ignored, and the flow field is assumed to behave as a continuum.
This assumption allows fluid properties such as density and flow velocity to be defined everywhere within the flow. The validity of the continuum assumption is dependent on the density of the gas and the application in question.
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For the continuum assumption to be valid, the mean free path length must be much smaller than the length scale of the application in question. For example, many aerodynamics applications deal with aircraft flying in atmospheric conditions, where the mean free path length is on the order of micrometers and where the body is orders of magnitude larger.
In these cases, the length scale of the aircraft ranges from a few meters to a few tens of meters, which is much larger than the mean free path length. For such applications, the continuum assumption is reasonable. The continuum assumption is less valid for extremely low-density flows, such as those encountered by vehicles at very high altitudes e. In those cases, statistical mechanics is a more accurate method of solving the problem than is continuum aerodynamics.
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The Knudsen number can be used to guide the choice between statistical mechanics and the continuous formulation of aerodynamics. The assumption of a fluid continuum allows problems in aerodynamics to be solved using fluid dynamics conservation laws. Three conservation principles are used:.
The ideal gas law or another such equation of state is often used in conjunction with these equations to form a determined system that allows the solution for the unknown variables. Aerodynamic problems are classified by the flow environment or properties of the flow, including flow speed , compressibility , and viscosity. External aerodynamics is the study of flow around solid objects of various shapes. Evaluating the lift and drag on an airplane or the shock waves that form in front of the nose of a rocket are examples of external aerodynamics.
Internal aerodynamics is the study of flow through passages in solid objects. For instance, internal aerodynamics encompasses the study of the airflow through a jet engine or through an air conditioning pipe. Aerodynamic problems can also be classified according to whether the flow speed is below, near or above the speed of sound.
A problem is called subsonic if all the speeds in the problem are less than the speed of sound, transonic if speeds both below and above the speed of sound are present normally when the characteristic speed is approximately the speed of sound , supersonic when the characteristic flow speed is greater than the speed of sound, and hypersonic when the flow speed is much greater than the speed of sound. Aerodynamicists disagree over the precise definition of hypersonic flow; a rough definition considers flows with Mach numbers above 5 to be hypersonic. The influence of viscosity on the flow dictates a third classification.
Some problems may encounter only very small viscous effects, in which case viscosity can be considered to be negligible. The approximations to these problems are called inviscid flows. Flows for which viscosity cannot be neglected are called viscous flows. An incompressible flow is a flow in which density is constant in both time and space. Although all real fluids are compressible, a flow is often approximated as incompressible if the effect of the density changes cause only small changes to the calculated results.
This is more likely to be true when the flow speeds are significantly lower than the speed of sound. Effects of compressibility are more significant at speeds close to or above the speed of sound. The Mach number is used to evaluate whether the incompressibility can be assumed, otherwise the effects of compressibility must be included. Subsonic or low-speed aerodynamics describes fluid motion in flows which are much lower than the speed of sound everywhere in the flow.
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There are several branches of subsonic flow but one special case arises when the flow is inviscid , incompressible and irrotational. This case is called potential flow and allows the differential equations that describe the flow to be a simplified version of the equations of fluid dynamics , thus making available to the aerodynamicist a range of quick and easy solutions. In solving a subsonic problem, one decision to be made by the aerodynamicist is whether to incorporate the effects of compressibility. Compressibility is a description of the amount of change of density in the flow.
When the effects of compressibility on the solution are small, the assumption that density is constant may be made. The problem is then an incompressible low-speed aerodynamics problem. When the density is allowed to vary, the flow is called compressible. In air, compressibility effects are usually ignored when the Mach number in the flow does not exceed 0.
Above Mach 0. According to the theory of aerodynamics, a flow is considered to be compressible if the density changes along a streamline. This means that — unlike incompressible flow — changes in density are considered. In general, this is the case where the Mach number in part or all of the flow exceeds 0. The Mach 0. Transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flows are all compressible flows. The term Transonic refers to a range of flow velocities just below and above the local speed of sound generally taken as Mach 0.
It is defined as the range of speeds between the critical Mach number , when some parts of the airflow over an aircraft become supersonic , and a higher speed, typically near Mach 1. Between these speeds, some of the airflow is supersonic, while some of the airflow is not supersonic. Supersonic aerodynamic problems are those involving flow speeds greater than the speed of sound. Calculating the lift on the Concorde during cruise can be an example of a supersonic aerodynamic problem.
Supersonic flow behaves very differently from subsonic flow. Fluids react to differences in pressure; pressure changes are how a fluid is "told" to respond to its environment.
Therefore, since sound is, in fact, an infinitesimal pressure difference propagating through a fluid, the speed of sound in that fluid can be considered the fastest speed that "information" can travel in the flow. This difference most obviously manifests itself in the case of a fluid striking an object. In front of that object, the fluid builds up a stagnation pressure as impact with the object brings the moving fluid to rest.
In fluid traveling at subsonic speed, this pressure disturbance can propagate upstream, changing the flow pattern ahead of the object and giving the impression that the fluid "knows" the object is there by seemingly adjusting its movement and is flowing around it. In a supersonic flow, however, the pressure disturbance cannot propagate upstream. Thus, when the fluid finally reaches the object it strikes it and the fluid is forced to change its properties — temperature , density , pressure , and Mach number —in an extremely violent and irreversible fashion called a shock wave.
The presence of shock waves, along with the compressibility effects of high-flow velocity see Reynolds number fluids, is the central difference between the supersonic and subsonic aerodynamics regimes. In aerodynamics, hypersonic speeds are speeds that are highly supersonic. In the s, the term generally came to refer to speeds of Mach 5 5 times the speed of sound and above. The hypersonic regime is a subset of the supersonic regime. Hypersonic flow is characterized by high temperature flow behind a shock wave, viscous interaction, and chemical dissociation of gas.
The incompressible and compressible flow regimes produce many associated phenomena, such as boundary layers and turbulence. The concept of a boundary layer is important in many problems in aerodynamics. The viscosity and fluid friction in the air is approximated as being significant only in this thin layer.